Side effects of dating a smoker
Nicotine dependence involves aspects of both psychological dependence and physical dependence, since discontinuation of extended use has been shown to produce both affective (e.g., anxiety, irritability, craving, anhedonia) and somatic (mild motor dysfunctions such as tremor) withdrawal symptoms.
Nicotine activates the mesolimbic pathway and induces long-term ΔFos B expression (i.e., produces phosphorylated ΔFos B isoforms) in the nucleus accumbens when inhaled or injected frequently or at high doses, but not necessarily when ingested.
It is miscible with water in its base form between 60 °C and 210 °C.
As a nitrogenous base, nicotine forms salts with acids that are usually solid and water-soluble.
The US Food and Drug Administration (FDA) stated in 2013 that there are no significant safety concerns associated with the use of more than one form of over-the-counter (OTC) nicotine replacement therapy at the same time, or using OTC NRT at the same time as another nicotine-containing product, like cigarettes.
Nicotine reduces the amount of rapid eye movement (REM) sleep, slow-wave sleep (SWS), and total sleep time in healthy nonsmokers given nicotine via a transdermal patch, and the reduction is dose-dependent.
Nicotine is a stimulant and potent parasympathomimetic alkaloid that is naturally produced in the nightshade family of plants.
It is used for the treatment of tobacco use disorders as a smoking cessation aid and nicotine dependence for the relief of withdrawal symptoms.
Calcium triggers the exocytosis of chromaffin granules and thus the release of epinephrine (and norepinephrine) into the bloodstream.
The release of epinephrine (adrenaline) causes an increase in heart rate, blood pressure and respiration, as well as higher blood glucose levels.